Black Truffle

While this list is not a comprehensive list of Tubers, this list contains more common palatable species that are known to be cultivated or used in culinary dishes.

Common Name Genus species (Scientific Name) Description Notes
Black Truffle Tuber melanosporum Tuber melanosporum, called the “black truffle”,Pèrigord truffle” or “French black truffle”,[1] is a species of truffle native to Southern Europe. It is one of the most expensive edible mushrooms in the world.  
Summer Truffle Tuber aestivum The “summer truffle” (Tuber aestivum) or “burgundy truffle”(Tuber uncinatum) is a species of truffle, found in almost all European countries.[1]  
Burgundy Truffle Tuber uncinatum The “summer truffle” (Tuber aestivum) or “burgundy truffle” (Tuber uncinatum) is a species of truffle, found in almost all European countries.  
White Truffle Tuber magnatum Tuber magnatum,[1] the “white truffle” or “trifola d’Alba Madonna” (“Truffle of the White Madonna” in Italian) is a species of truffle  in the order Pezizales and family Tuberaceae; it is found in southern Europe.  
Oregon Black Truffle Leucangium carthusianum Leucangium is a genus of ascomycete fungi.[1] The genus was circumscribed by French mycologist Lucien Quélet in 1883.[2]Although classified in the Helvellaceae in the past (e.g., in Dictionary of the Fungi, 10th edition, 2008),[3] molecular analysis indicates it is closely related to the genus Fischerula and Imaia, and therefore must be placed in the Morchellaceae.[4] The genus includes two species, Leucangium ophthalmosporum Quél. (the type of the genus) and L. carthusianum (Tul. & C. Tul.) Paol., and both of them produce sequestrate ascoma, globose to ellipsoidal ascus (inamyloid and eight-spored), and dark olive-colored to grayish green, smooth, fusiform ascospores.[5]  
Oregon White Truffle Tuber oregonense Tuber oregonense, commonly known as the “Oregon white truffle”, is a species of edible truffle in the genus Tuber. Described as new to science in 2010, the North American species is found on the western coast of the United States, from northern California to southern British Columbia west of the Cascade Range. A mycorrhizal fungus, it grows in a symbiotic association with Douglas fir. It overlaps in distribution with the closely related T. gibbosum, but they have different growing seasons: T. oregonense typically appears from October through March, while T. gibbosum grows from January to June. The fruit bodies of the fungus are roughly spherical to irregular in shape, and resemble small potatoes up to 5 cm (2 in) in diameter. Inside the truffle is the gleba, which is initially white before it becomes a marbled tan color. The large, often thick-walled, and strongly ornamented spores are produced in large spherical asci. The truffle is highly prized for its taste and aroma. Some individuals have claimed success in cultivating the truffles in Christmas tree farms.  
Oregon Brown Truffle Kalapuya brunnea Kalapuya brunnea is a species of truffle in the monotypic fungal genus Kalapuya. The truffle occurs only in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, in western Oregon and northern California. Known locally as the Oregon brown truffle, it was formerly thought to be an undescribed species of Leucangium until molecular analysis demonstrated that it was distinct from that genus. The truffle is reddish brown with a rough and warty outer skin, while the interior spore-producing gleba is initially whitish before developing greyish-brown mottling as it matures. Mature truffles have an odor resembling garlicky cheese, similar to mature Camembert. The species has been harvested for culinary purposes in Oregon.  
Pecan Truffle Tuber lyonii Also known as the American brown truffle or the pecan truffle,[1] is a species of truffle native to North America. The pecan truffle is so named because it is most commonly found in pecan orchards, in association with the pecan tree, however the pecan is not its only symbiote. Formerly considered nothing more than a nuisance by pecan farmers, the pecan truffle has been gaining in popularity as an edible mushroom in recent years and can fetch over $160 per pound at market.[2]  
Chinese Truffle Tuber indicum Considered a threat to Tuber melanosporum, is similar, and referred to as the Asian Black Truffle. Initially found in the forests of Oregon, USA. A RFLP genetic test has been developed to distinguish the two species.[11] Externally, they can be distinguished by their skin, which is smoother and dark red or dark brown in the Chinese truffle. Two other similar truffle species are the summer truffle (Tuber aestivum) and the winter truffle (Tuber brumale), whose flesh is of a lighter color.  
Bianchetto Truffle Tuber borchii Tuber borchii is an edible truffle with excellent culinary qualities, commonly called bianchetto (whitish truffle). Bianchetto has a size of a pea to an egg and its color ranges from pale yellow to reddish brown. The peridium is smooth or finely pubescent, especially in the gaps. [From Microfora,]  
Examples of Less Common Species
Appalachian Truffle Tuber canaliculatum    
Mesentericum Truffle Tuber mesentiricum    
Gibbosum truffle Tuber gibbosum